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4.2. peo oap

 

Bopoc o o, o oo poaa a pe, .e o peo oape, ec o cyecex o p.

B aoe P " oapx pax peo opoe" oeaec, o upeo moap mo "e um u oopoma map onpeeeoo poa u aecma, mo uce cmaapm ompam u oocaem a yaa moap, onye ymaoeo nope upe upeo mopoe"* .

* ao P " oapx pax peo opoe" o 20 epa 1992 . C. 6. . 1.

 

Ta opao, aa pa pae caocoeo ycaaa coca oapo, oope yy c oeo peoo opa. Oao p o yac e peoa, oope pec pe oapa pao peo opo.

eycoo, oxo peoa peoy oapy ec c pae peo opo. epoaao pe apa e pec ae-o ocoe peoa. B acoee pe opo a pe oapa x ocyce, coooe eoopaoae, opo a a oapo, a poee opeeeoy cpoy, oepa y-poa e oo oapo a ao,o ooopo (opao) a eo ocay yye, a ae opo pao a aee aoro ooopa opeoa cpooo oopa ceaoo peoo oapa.

Ka e peoa oe cooecoa peo oap?

pee ceo peo oap oe acco, .e. ycac ocaoo oo oee, o co pooee ayac (peaaac) o co opeee. Cocpeooee a pe ooo ca a poao, a oyaee opeoo oapa ae oooc aoee pao ycao cpoc peoee, a ceoaeo, eceo paoecy ey. e eceoo pooe, yae o aepe coe, xo poeee ocaoo oo oece, e oy oeo peoro opa c c e, o yae coca ax oapo e oo x oepay oey e a oooc ycao aoee peey ey.

Heoxo ycoe peoo oapa ec coooe eoopaoaue, .e. ea a o oap oa cooo ycaaac acoc o oyp pa, a ae x aopo (coax, ooecx, oecx, opc-aopx),

Hapep, Pocc 1991 . cooe e ycaoe a oep, ayo, eoexy. ooy a cex pax o pe peoaa ce a oapo.

upeo moap mo npoyu, npoea u nepuy nepepaomy, m.e. cpe uu noapuam. Hapep, o paa peo opo CA ooc ooe oee poy poeoro pooca e oycac peo opoe, a a caec, o yeee yeee pooca ax oapo o oo ac o o pooee, oope e ca oy aypoa eo.

Ceyee peoae, peeoe peoy oapy, aaec o, o a ero oo eo ycao mpeoau no aecmy, ycou xpaeu, mpacnopmupoe, uepeu. ae oop, o oap eo caappoa, oo o eo oo o poaa e ocopa o opaa execoy oca. Caec, o cmaapmuau opayem a npua nouo upeoo moapa, c oo oopo oo oc ayeo ooecoo peyaa eoooa yco e cpoca peoe a ope oap.

Ceye oepy, caapa oxaae p cyecex peoa, peex peoy oapy, apep, eo oa aeeoc. Cyoc oo aeeoc oapa coco o, o copeee pee ce oo oo p yco eoc oapa o cocay, coca, y aecy yao, appo, ee ap (paepy, ecy). Boee peoro caapa peycapae oooc oea oapa, .e. o caoro oea oe opaa oyae e ae, oya o eo oy.

T pepo aoaeeoro peoro oapa c ee ya. Oee ap aaox oapo, pecae poy pooceo-execoo aae (cpe oyapa), oy cyeceo paac py o pya. ooy po peoo caapa coc ycaoe oaooo ypo oaaee coc pa oapo peo caap oe epecapac ooc cooec c peoa opeee.

Hao oe, o peo caap oaec o aoax caapo a aaoy poy: OCT, DIN, JIS, ASTM, BS .. Haoa caap pae ce ocoeoc oapa ero ye aecee oaae, pcye ao cpae. Hapep, o poa oap a ooco pe eao ("oo ea ce"), eoxo ooee apa a ocy eaa, pay ceae o ecy paepy c, a opaoy x oepxoc, ocepa, yaoy, appoy. Bce apa e eoxooc ea, ec o ea peayec o p opap-opaa yp cpa, a OCT e peycapae ae ece peoa eay.

Oao opo o pe caapa p cex cox peyecax a cee eoopy oacoc, oopy eoxoo ya. B acoc, co peo caap, oa o aece ypoe peayex oapo, oe c peoro oopoa aey accy oapo, e oxox o caap, o o cy xc pe oapo.

Hapo, peo caap aoap poy eaeceoo oapa oe oopa aope p ae c peo oopo a ce ooa eo, e yoeopex aeco oapo a o pe.

B ocax oaoro pee o poe a eoopx pax coaec peec cy c peee eacx cepo oe ypo aeca oapa oooc ca eo a o.

Ha eoopx pax oo pay pao epepoa oapa o ypo aeca c cooecy oaa ca c e, ec oap a opax oaec o aecy o caaporo.

B acoc, CA a pe "ao op o Tpe" a opax ycaaaec ea e opoo acca, ec a pe ye poaac ea epoo peeo acca. B o cyae aaec pooc aaa ca c e peayeo poy.

B CA pooc p copa e: "a paca", "epa paca", "ea ceepa". B co oepe, a cop oeaec o pe (1, 2, 3) acca, ocoy ee pae xeoeape coca. Ha ooco pe eao poa oya opa a e e aepapco aoo, pe poae ee pao ca a op ae aepapco, oyex epoeco e, aepapc oeo papo, o co co o 20 .c. a 1 . Ha ooco pe eao oe poa oo o ea, apa oopoo apecppoaa. p pecpa, apep, epoeco e epopoooc oa cooecoa oaae, acaoy caapax A (BS) CA (ASTM). pa, eaa apecppoa aocy apy coeo eaa, oa peca pecpaooy oey ceye oye: aeoae ap eaa; cea apa p pooe, oepaa aeco ap eaa, oopa cooecye peoa peoro caapa; apaoe oaeco o aecy oapa p ocae eo yye; ceoe oepee o oe cex aooaex ao p cyae pepae oca oapa.

Kpoe oo, p pecpa peyec ceoe oepee e eee yx ecx acx aepacx p, o o ea cnooa oeae peoa pooca. B aece peoea oy pac cepa yx oax aopaop, aaxc peecpe, yepeo cep oeo p.

peo caap oxaae aoe peoae, peeoe peoy oapy, a ouecmo moapa, npeaaeoo y-npoau. Toap a pe poaec oyae cpoo opeeex paepax e a aaex pex e, oope cooecy o ecoc pacopx cpec (a pao, eeoopox aroo), o ecy o oey ecy (apep, CA a xoa). ooy aec oe poa (ap, o) oe pa peo ee. Hapep, CA a oapo pe "aro op o Tpe" pea ea o ee cocae 5 c. yee (ooo 100 ), o pyoy poaoy coy 34 roo o (40 c. yo 18 ). Ha ooco pe eao pea ea e, a, ca yepea paa o p cocae 25 , ooa 5 , cepepa 311 .

Caapa oeca oapa, peeoo peo opoe, oaae, o ca ap e oy ycaaac poao oyaee pooo. Hapep, ae cpae p oo y aae 112 caxaporo eca pca. Ka pao, poy poac pacacoe o 0,5 1,0 . Ta a pao oapo pe eooo y poa ap oapa, e pay peo ee. Oca ceye a o: u npououme, u nompeume apaee naupym oe nocmau u aao eoxouoo moap.

peo caap peycapae ae pao poaa a op caa, e oa pooc caa-pea oapa. Baee caa pae py a oeceoe xpaee cae a ay ap moapopacnopume oyem (appam).

oyae oyae p oye opaa oae appa (oaa a cpo xpae). p epepoae oapa o oyae, co oepe, coa oaae appa .. Ta opao, ece c opao appa epexo o ooo aea, pyoy. oce cya oaaec oce aee oapa. a coxpaoc aeca oapa oeae ca.

B acoc o oapa pacxo a eo cpaxoae p xpae coca o 6\% ec o cooc ap.

Oemo upeo mopou acoee pe c pepo 70 o oapo. x oo oe ceye py opy, apep:

1) cecoxocee ece oap poy x epepao:

epoe (ea, yypya, oec, e, po);

acoceea (oe, xoooe ce, co, o, coeoe aco, po);

e oe co (py poa co, c, co oopoa);

ece oap (xoo, y, epc, aypa cycce e, pa, e);

eycoe oap (caxap, oe, aao-o, pacee aca, apoe, epe, a, apaxc, oepa aecooo coa);

ece oap (oaepa, aepa);

aypa ayy;

2) cpe oyapa:

ee ea (e, ooo, , ce, e, a paoee ea: cepepo, ooo, aa);

3) e eepoy.

Ocoeoc cex epecex oapo, a ye oopoc paee, c accooe x pooco yco cpoc.

Hoeaypa peoo oapa c oa eec: oc oe, cea cape. Ta, oceee pe aece peoo oapa ca cooac poy eeepepao: e, eoe oo, ay p. K cy eao oxc a opax ox oapo oo oec e, a, paoee ea, oepa aecooro coa, aepy, apoe ..

Cacec aa oaae, o a cecoxocee, ece oap oaero ooa pxoc ooo 55\% oea ce peo opo 75\% oapo, opaaxc a pe. a ee ooo ycoa. Oa aaec a poe ecox eco e. o acaec py poeoo cp, o c pae ex exoo oe x oapo pex opax ye eyoo . oy ceecye oee a opax pa ox ex eao.

Ceye opa ae a o, o pae peo opo oaae ooe e a peo oap. epoaao o cya e peaoo oapa (ye poeeoo poooro opeeeoy cpoy), ex ya, a, peoeex eao; ae oeo peo opo ca caap peo opa epc, a oce eo oo, peca pao a aee peoo opaa (cxea 8). pe ec pea oap ec oe peo opo a oapx pax, aa peoeee ea a ax, a ee yar a oox, o epc oo coyc a cex ax p (a. 2).

8.

 

Taa 2 PACPEEEHE PEBOO TOBAPA PAM

 

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Pea

oap

 

 

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Baa,

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a,

peo-

eee

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epc

 

 

Oo

 

 

Toape

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

ooe

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

Bae

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

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