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5.7. opaa peo opo.

 

Opraa po xoe peo cecc oaa aeoe e a aoc o peoo pa. op opaa peo pro ac ocoo o coco oooro pa, .e. ero y, p ypo . e oe oe cpoca peoe a ee ya, e pe po; e pyee oe ao eopo oeppoaee cpoc peoee, e ye op po. poe copoeoc pa eco ca c aaoo e, opo yac pa o oya poaa ee ya.

Pap ey ye eo npoaa (uuao) u ye eo noynme (acao) aaemc cnpo. Moo xapaepoa cp a ooey ey, ec acaa ea oyae oaaec e ao e . Opae cp opeee eo papa ey ao eo poaa acao eo oyae. pea opo cocoye copae aaoa e, x oepa opy yx. o ocae c oo .

p eoo oee cpoca peoe pro poo ope npocoo . Tao ayo oe opaoa o poao, op oyae peoee oyaee (ayo poaa), o oyaee, ope eee poee o pa oeax poao (ayo ).

B Pocc poecc peo po aa opoac c pocx ayoo poao no muny aucoo ayuoa. Eo cyoc aac , poa o aaa oprox copa oa co a a poay oox eoce o aao . O co opoox eex, ope paa yaca peoro . B xoe ayoa p a oype oyaee ea oceoaeo oae a a aro (paep aa ayoa opeeec o aaa po), oa e oae o oyae ee ya poac o cao coo ee peoe.

Booe ocu yuo, p opo aaa ea poaa ea ey p ocoaeo peaae ce oee e ca, oa aa-o x e . B cyae ee yar poa epoy oyae, oopoo ycpaae peoe ypc.

Ha ayuoe mey, uu a aaeo aoo ayuoe, ce oyae peaa co a oopeeo, a ee ya popeae , o cea caoe cooe peoee.

Mcepco aco Poccco eepa paeae rocyapcee paocpoe oaea a p-ec ece a ocoe ayuoa ey. oyae (ece pece a) peca co ca oopeeo o oroopeoo cpoa, paeee ocyee o ea e e oee e e paee aoo yca.

Hpyo ae, poc ayo poaae oype o poao ( ycox a oox eoe oaa aeecocooo cpoca), o oyaee (p e aeecocooro cpoca oooo ooe poao ex ya). p oy x apo, a ae p oao y6e pe oooo pa aoee eo oaaec cea ooo ayuoa. Oa poaae ae oype ey poaa ey noyae. oo ayo a opa opraa peo po aoee oo cooeye ppoe oooro pa. Cyey e op ox ayoo: oo po epe ..

Cooe pa ex ya, a eo eo oc, peopee op op ooo ayoa. Ec ce a pe aa peo, cyecye oo pap ey eo oyae eo poaa, a oea e o e ee e oc peyp xapaep, o ao po e e , pea po paec e o opaoaa ope epepoo ayoa. B cyae oee peeo e opaa peo pro no muny oooo pa c peu ao. e eee e po, e pee a ayoa eee epo aoe ao a oyy poay ex ya, ope ae "pea ao" o a oopeeoro .

"Ayuo puo" ee ocao yoe cpece op. eepaoe paeo CA 1790 , yo a 80 . o. oa peacpoa coero oa, caoro c oo a e. Ora a oo epec y cey, cope eopaa pro oex oopax ycya eco peyp ayoa, poo oe a o-Cp. Ayoep opye copaxc pa oo a py aa oex ex ya. oce oe yca yac ayoa cooa co poe: o aa ey, o opo o coac y ee ya ("ea oyae" bid price), pye ey, o opo coac x poa ("ea poaa" ask price).

Ta opao, pyo ae, o ooy py cooecye aa peea oypa, a "ao ayo", p opo aa o o yco, o ceo. p yo oe yoooe p ee ayi o aoy ycy o e oee ce epaero . o epe oye ao o yeae yeae ey, oa e ayae ao aac cpoca poe, oecea aca . p poep oe e co epoaa aa. Ka yao pra ae o eyoceo coe npuopumema e, a p pox pax ycox poro npuopumema - oea, .e. oneca yaax ae ex ya. Hapep, ape yc ayo coyec p proe py, a . O oxoc opoe, e ce. p ceo oe aao cxoa ea yaaaec ypc-aepo (o poepo), op oeppye a a oyy poay, a ae yaaae ey, acpyy . aa ay apaee, poep e oe e co epoaa aa, ooy pope pee, oop ecye a o yco ayoe, cyae ceo oa a epe cc. B e opeee proa ea, o oopo poa oyae aa .

Ta opao a "a" "oae" po aoero oea aa. p o pe "a" ocye ecoo pa eee peoro . Kpyee aoe p o p Ap, e, epa pa. ace "a" ceecy o a ocoo cpoca peoe a ee ya, o oc pa, oo epe enpepoy ayuoy, op, co oepe, ee p a.

ep x cooae aao, opy aoc yo epeaaee poepa . ae ep (yoooe p) coe x, a oe e o epe x . Ta opao ocyecec coeee aao, aoap oopoy ope oyae opy c ope poaa, pe ee o yaoa ecoo . Hapep, py aa a oyy o coc eco aaa a poay a .

Bpo epeporo ayoa ao, a opo yaae aya apa e a a c (aca p oye, aea p poae). Maep pypye oye a opeee o aoy y ex ya ypcoe oea (acy p oye, aey p poae). e o a ao pa paoeo eca poepa. Hapep, a ao H-opco cpooo p o a ao-o opopa yaao "17 3/8 17 3/4"; "3/8, 3/4". o oaa, o 17 3/8 aya ea cpoca, a 17 3/4 aya ea .

e cya ocoo oppepo coex ao o-poe pae p poecce peoo pa. poaapoa cya, poep ca o e a ao, oope ce peepa, axoc p6o ae. aa paea a ao xpoooeco ope, oy pope pee pa opey po. aa o e oe, ec aaoe aa a y e ey pxo pae oroa aa pooooo cpo pa. po eoe aoo aaa oe "oepeee" a a a, Ec aao e, op, a ye oeaoc, xapaepye ypoe copoeoc pa, e, aep oe ec oppepo xoe peo wpro, c e a, oope co opac o e cpoca peoe. Caa opaa peo po oo oc oc pa ye yaoe peeoo cpa.

Tpe epepoo ayoa "a". Tpeep copa opy epa (yoooeoo p), op oe oya po yc, a ae ca poo p, pa po, oca opaea. Ce "e" aa o pa ea, pe o oyae o a ey c pa poaa, e ac ope ey oy . Tpyo cee pea po "" a ox pax, ocaex copeeo oepo exo, o a yca pyex oa. Oao y o a epepoo ayoa e opeeee peyeca peeoo oee aao, ooe "oc po" a, acao y oeo coxc aao.

Ta opao, , o "ao ayo" cocoye ycaoe o, aoee cpaeo e, o pe a a epepo ayoe oa oeec o ce cee.

Opaa peo po ee eoc ac e o o op ee ayoa, o o po pex ocpeo poecce ee ocyece. Tpyo a ooy py, a opo oepa c oo eoc ocyec ca . Oao ocoa e p opaa opo, opy ocyec poeccoa pa poep ep c e coe ao ecopa.

poep o ae ea, oy eo ay. O apae a oo ye ee co, a opaea o cee, epec opoo a pe pecae pyo poep o ca ( ocee cyae aa yy caooc). Ec cea co cpo poaa, co cpo oyae ye aea a pe o e ea a eo ce, poep e pcaee ae ea, oy po, npecmau cooynocm mux ceo, aaemc aemcu.

pepo aeoo pa e eeoc "occox" "yxoapox" poepo a H-opco ooo pe. "Kocco" poep cya oa, e p paoa eo ae a "oy". "yxoapo" poep (a. two-dollar broker) eac poep pooo aa; poo ae poep pa occ paepe 2-x o. a ae 100 e peaoax ex a.

oy opyee ea, "occo" poep oo apae ceay o a a. Ec o a oe a, o oe opoc oe opyee ceacy ooo "yxoapox" poepo. yy eac ea, "yxoapoe" poep epy occoe a aoe opyee, opoe o ooa co. occoe aa "epxe" poepco po. Paoa "occox" "yxoapox" poepo coc o, o oece aye ooe e ex opye, ope epeaa "epx" poepca pa.

oca opyee ceacy, poep pooo aa (y o "occo" "yxoapo" poep) opee aye peaaey apaaey e (cay coy paaey cay y apaaey) o aoy aeoa . Oo o ce y opa y ceaa ca c epooo epaa, pacooeoo a eco eo . Ha epae ae ceaec eco a, oope peaae y poa o yaao ee ( oeco aae paeee a). Boopyc opae, poep papaaae cpae coe . Hapep, y poepa ec "pooe" opyee a oyy 1200 a, o oe oe ayy apaaey ey oeco a, peaaex poae o ee. Ec oeco e eee 1200 poep ocae ey peaeo, o p oo pa o cooae o p peoe. B cyae cea coepaec eeo.

p aye peoe, cxoe o poepa opooo aa, ae axoeoc oe ceaa, a poepa oeac aa p, ope o peca, yepa ea co . a cea oxo e poo yac ceaa, a poepo apaaae occoe o poepco p, oopy o pecae (ec oo o e paoa a epo ae). O ao ce ceac ax oc .

Ec aya ea aaa "o" peoe, oopoe o ocao y ceaca peaa, poep pooo aa, p c opyee a oyy, apaaae occoe (a o yaao e), ceac oyae occoe o poepco p, ocae y eo "oe" opyee. B cyae, oa cea poae 1200 a coeo coceoo aaca, o e oya ax occox. Payee, poep c "po" opyee a oyy 1200 a e oa "xaac" a yy eyy ey cpay o pxoy ecy ceaca. O o oy oee oy ey, ooa peo opoy e oeo.

Ec ec "pooo" opye poepy pooo aa ao "oe" opyee, pe ooopea e ea cyeeo e e peoaae poo e, o oe poec oa opyee y ceaa, o c ero, oa oo poe yco. B cyae poep pooo aa oaae o opye e oyae occoe o poepco .

co "e" opye, ocaee "occo" "yxoapo" poepa, ea apaaae occoe o "epxx" p. Koeo, poep pooo aa oe ca ocac y eca ceaa oac oee ox yco coe "oo" . Toa o, a e cea, oy occoe o "epxe" poepco p. poep pooo aa cea oya occoe a, oa o eceo ocyec ocpeece ycy. Hapep, oo ceaco H-opco ooo p epy a coee opye occ paepe o 1,5 o 2,0 o. a 100 . "yxoapoe" poep apaaa cpe o 1,0 o 1,5 o. a 100 a.

B oe o poepa uep cyae pooooo opoo pa, .e. oyae poa ee ya a co ce a c p, oopy o peae. co aa a oyy, ep poae ac coeo oooo peepa, a o aa a poay, oyae ee ya a ce coex cpec, .e. cya a pe . Cooynocm ceo, omopx ou u ompaemo cmynaem uep, aaemc uepcu po.

Ceye ye, pa ey pa e co opa, a oe oaac a ep . ep ee pao peaa co opo, a ae, oaa opeee peep aao yy poeccoao, oe cococoa oe o pa.

Ocoeo ao cppye o cpec pep. B 1875 ., coaco pea, paa o, oyea poepo o e e o, ea ee pay, opa ac ao oeo ep copeeo ooo p. oep cocoo epeac o ay, o pe peo poepce ycy o o ooy aeoa a o a "Beep o ". Ocyec y epao poo paceo aa, o copo oapy, o eo ooo o coee opye a poay oyy a opoc. B peyae ey cao ocya ee oe aao o pyx poepo. B ocooc cyeea ac peo a o poepo, op x e opy coep ce c a "Becp o Koa" o ea e o e peoaae poo e. o ycpaa pye co e, peoae x pcyc pax ecax peoo aa, poep oca co aa o a oy c e, o o .

Ta opao o ca ep ceao a H-opco ooo pe, a opye, op o o pyx poepo, a ece o aae "e" . Kpoe o o pe pea ae ex poepo, ope ca oooc coep cey o ay ee cooec c "po" opye cox e. Tae opye e coepa yaa oceo a e o peaoac cooec c po..

coy oy pay oa, pye poep aa opoa eo ec, pa ce pye a, aoc ceaa p. Bcope o ocoa, oee y Paceo aa peocae yay opa ooceo cpoca peoe o pa e yaa, a ae a opa o pec p p ee cooa oo po a co coce c. Bcece o ceac ca eoa e oo a ocpe ceax, o aece pao epo.

a, emaue op opauauu upeo mopou c aemcu u uepcu p cocmaem oy upeoo exaua u onpeeem yee ocoeocmu mopou a ao u up u. oco x coeee aeoo pa ayoa. Hapep, Toca ooa pa pca coo ae po ope epepoo aya, op opaoa c oo "-aao" ao. Aepace aace p c ocoo epc pa, e epep ayo oeceae cey: a ep, oea a yc, o ey poaa ey oyae, .e. oepae epep yxcopo po ye poa oy a a co c, ec peeo apyae aac cpoca pee. p o ppa opeeex pa.

o paa H-opco ooo p a ep-ceac oeae a eoe coee oepex ey ocpeecx opye, .e. x coee o aye ooo ee. o oae caa o coe pe oo o oeo cee acy peaaey ay apaaey e o apee a a. B paax oo e cea e oe cya oopeeo a ocpe a pa, apea paa peo po. Kaoa a ea a a, ceac oe oaa peoee coe opye, oyex o eo epe poepo pooo aa, ep coceo p. Hapo, ec opye, epae poepa, pyo eooo coec, paa peoaa, ceac ye "o epe payo oooc" cya aece paa.

a, ae peaaeo apaaeo e, a o ac poe H-opco ooo p, oo pca coo aoee peaee e peoe acay p oye ay p poae, pcaee y ceaa (ca ceac poepo pooo aa). Oao ec peoe, oyex o e pooo aa, a , o ceaa peyec x cea o coeo coceoo e. p y eo ec eoopa cooa ycaoe pa cpa ey co ae peaaeo apaaeo . Ec cp oo, cea oe oe apaa a eo epepoae a, oya x o o peaaeo ee poaa o coo apaaeo ee. Ec cp eoo, a cpee eo ee ceac apaoae ee, e epo . p eoo cpe aoap oee peae ea oepax ooo yace oeo oeca e.

poep ecp oco pocapa ae peaaex apaaex e epae, op oe . , cea oe cooa o o cao coo cao o apaaex eax a apeee a .

Booo, caa aa oaoc ceaa coc , o oepa cpaeo opo poe apee a a. paa pey, o cea poo c , . aco o cee aoy opye pcac eop pop aco o yppye e e, pee ocye ceacy paepa opye. p x pox ycox oee co pope oyc caa coa paaea caa a apaaea .

Hapep, a H-opco ooo pe pao 390 ce poepa apeae eoa aece pao ocpeo ey oyaee poao eax o opye a e peae x a epep ayo, pocxo poo ae. o cocoy y, o oa ac opye a oepa c opye a apae coe po a. B peyae pocxo ocoa oa ao, opa oe yy ac eoo opye a eo coee o aye ooo ee; p o oepae ooo ceaca oxpae eo pooo aa p a epao Paceo . Ta oeceae coee cce pope a pe.

pa oceoaeo aae pao 390 a eoxooe cpeo oecee cpaeoc eoc pa. Oao p yepa, eeoc pa p xoe coxpa co opo a poe pye a. Heope poep-ep, ec ea p, ea oe pao 390, o ooo coa co p opyex a aooe oo epeoo pa, oop o ye oepa.

 


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