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9.2. aoapoae paoe eca (apm) copyo p a ae epcoax bm.

 

o - (BM) nouaemc empoa ucumea aua, oeocmyna accooo nooae u yuepca peeux paoopax a.

Tpoe oeocmynmu accooo ooa ae ce ceye oaae, a o:

eea BM yax ooaee;

aoooc cyaa ceax peoa yco opyae cpe;

"pyeceo", cpa oye cooa, oeceae paoy eooeoy ooae;

eoc, apyac a coo ypoe epa ee ooe, a ae oepao aeo ocya.

Ceye , o oaae co BM p ee pope e ee peaeo ae. opao aee ypoe oceyeo copooe, aeco popaoo oecee . Haae apa p aye pacxo a cyaa poecce eoo a BM oy oac ecoo pa a ce ooe ox aapax ocoo popax .

epcaocm BM peex paoopax aa a:

oc apxeyp, opa oeceae ee ao paoopa pee cepe ypae;

po apxeyp, ooy poo ee ocoy oa ye ee ox aapao-popaxcpc;

coeo BM pax pooee a ypoe eeo epeca opaox ocee, oeceay po oe popa poya;

oooc oeoo cooa opooceo epepoo oopyoa, ocya aa ax aoo oea opae a ce oe ce c.

oee e aae o CA o pee BM eoo cepe xapaepyec cey ceopa pe:

ape 36\%;

ypaee pooco (c, aya, ypaee aaca capoae, acoo-ooece pace, apoae ypaee pyo pecypca) 28\%;

pee aoce oepa 25\%;

opaoa cepa 11\%.

Coaco peyaa ocoa ooo c pyx p o (a p) peee BM aoaa ypeeeco eeoc oco eoc ypae oee e a 15\% a ce oe pooeoc pya, yee apax pacxoo, yye aeca opao opa, ee cpae p pee eoc cooa ax.

ooae eoo cepe pe eca coe peoa ypo ex ypoc BM ee eoeo-aoy epecy. p opae eoo opa pey coae ox a ax oepa ocy coa opa. ooy eoxo peoae BM c ae ex aoee eoc e eee 40120 Ma.

poaoe oeceee BM, peeoe ccee ypae pe, peocae ee copyy oooc opao ec, poee ax ce, peopaoa opa ooo a pyo (apep, ao paecy), a ae opaa a ax. p exo pa a pae eoxoo acao p po eeoc oae (a coa c paoe oyea, paa co caap opa oye ..).

Peyao ypaeeco eeoc a pe e oopeue oyem.. p oo BM ooo yee yax o ( epox a papex aax o aopacx) a pax ax eo oppoa.

Cpy p, a pao, e oaa poeccoa a oac popapoa ocya epoo ex, x ex coye oepaa cce apaoo oo ocya BM.

pooe cooae BM opaaooro ypae pe, o cyecy, pey coa opeeo cce aoapoax paox ec, opo BM copy p ca oec aapoa ypaeec . B cyae ep "aapoa" eco ee eaopa, a a oe ypaeece pee pyo oac aaa, oc opec xapaep ac o cooyo oex cyex apo.

B acee pe oo oop o aaa oo oee oo eopx poecco, apyxc a popao oepe oecee opaoo exoo (ece ae poeccop, pae op, a ax ..). p cye oepy, ae execx paoo aaa oaec oo ac x opaox . pe peee oya, e oa ., o o, ce cxooec, pa eaeo acao ypoc ("exa"). ooy BM a paoe coe copya p c pe aapoaoo paoeo ea oa o copee yuu coonpououmeoo ''umeemyaoo" accucmema (opaa ao, oc, coppoa, coaee oeo, ocpoeee ax a pae), ee aaa opaaooo ypae. Too c ye aoo oxoa pcae oppe pacpocpa a ypeecy eeo oe aapoaoo paoeo eca, a a pe e ao cyae o epcoao epe ypae.

auma ax. Oo aex poe p opoe aeo opaoo pyyp a ae BM ec oeceee a opa. Oa oxaae a ecy ay ax ccx popa, a ay o ecaopoaoo ocya a, epeaae o c. Ta opao, oe "aa ax" paccapa opoc eooc ax ypae ocya a (caopoaoc) a pe.

aoee eoo cooa opaoax a pae cpec a ax x ee eoxoo peycapa ye a pax cax poepoa cce ypae pe. Cey oepy, opaa oax cee a pax ee opay copoy . B cyae ce oepe poeyp ecoo opae oya BM cao ee, ep poe epeeae opaa opo a oe cooae ax. p oeoo cooa coxpae poea a o op aoro ooae ce.

Coxpaee eooc ax e opaao exooec . Opauauo acnem ae ceye paa:

oce opa eoxoo xpa eax, eoyx ocpox ;

aa opa oa e ecoo o a pax ocex;

ay ax a eco ao ce cye oepa epoec opoae a e ae . aca opoa pae coaco a cpeo pee a opoae cpeeo pee a ocaoee opa oce oceeo opoa cyae ooe eeo opoao epc;

ae, oocec pa aaa, eecoopao xpa eo;

eoxoo cpoo pyoocoac paa opae c a .

Texoouecu acnem ca c pa a opae, ope oepac cpyypo cce ypae aa ax (C) o ocy ooae. Cyecy opae:

ooe opeex apy c e coxpae peyex poop ey x ap o ae;

peye coxpae ae o oaae eopo aaoe;

cae c aa y acoc.

Oeceee caopoaoc cooa ax eooao oxaae ocoo opoc a ax o eeaeo oa yoe, a ae o ecaopoaoo x e. Moo e p ooex exaa ypae ocyo a: ea ooae, ocpecea (eca) aa ax oepa pa oya ooae a c oooc x epa.

Cpymypa APM copyuo upu. Koeyaoe oe APM copya p a ae BM poc BM a paoe ce poepa, aepa, pyooe p coo , APM opa apxeypa BM yoa, ec pooec acpaae a opeoo ooae (epcoaoe APM) pyy ooaee (ce APM). poecc eooae (ocoeo p aaa pao ceaco), oy epo oa ooo cepee pyoc oocoa opeee ox peoa APM, opepoax a peee pax aa. eceo, c oo cpo, ceaa p (poepa, epa, aepa) o peoa ooo pea aa, oocec pa ca x pa pa poeccoa opea (oc oapo y poa, aa eca pex e ..), a c pyro pyooe p o e oooc ypa poecco eppoa peya pa ceac oee pye opaoe acc p pee.

Apoaoe pae cmo (APM) compya npecmaem coo cooynocm emouecux, ox u npopa cpe, oecneuaux paomy nooamee a BM oacmu upeo emeocmu (cxea 26).

aa coaa APM cpya p cea aoa ooae BM, a ae popaa ccea, peaya oeceaa eee eoxoo a ax a pe. ooae poepye, a pao, epoeyp poeccoao . Eo ocoy coca ep, eoxoe pao oac peo po.

Oeceaa ac APM pea opaye opaoo-aepay ocoy ae opaooe, execoe popaoe ocee, coyee ceaa p pee cox ypaeecx opaaox a.

o oe APM compyo mo cooynoc peauoax peeu no oey, paeeu u opa opuu uopauu, eoxouo yuoupoau APM compyua up. Oo a opao-cpaoy opa o peo eeoc, ypoae ceae accaop exo-ooeco opa ce oyea (apep, accap oo apx py, cea oyea o poepco eeoc). opo pecae opaa ax APM cya oye, acc a ax.

p poepoa APM cpya p opaooe oeceee axo coe paee coa a aaeo uopauoo a () a cooynocmu ynopoeo u opauoao coomemcmyu opao uopauu.

Paa eay ypay opaoe a. Beaua o ac opaoo a (), pecaa coo cooyoc cooe oye, coyex p yopoa pax APM a pe ope, opa ocpaec ooaee x APM e pee cpc ceo ex. Bympuaa o ac , cocaa cooyoc coaaex coyex ax a ax ocex e opaox ao a ax.

Oao ceye oe, o oceeo p cooa ce oee ox BM paec cpae pa ey eao ypao aa, a a opa opaye ee eocpeeo BM, x cex () cex oecax oee cooo ypo.

Ocoo oppoa opaoo a p cy oenu a x. Ce opao, opoee a oe, oaa cey occa:

a BM coa, xpac opaaa e oo eeape ae, o coe cpyyp, oe ae;

pyyppoae ax copaa x ypoae po oo a a ex ocex ( ocoeo ao BM), oae aeoc ocepoc opa ( ee ooe aee APM a pe);

a ax coa, oca, cyecy ayapy eaco pax popa;

oeceae epa opa, ooy a opa ao oeo opao ox ooaee APM;

ccea opao e oee cpoo aeo, a apa a ee eee ocyae .

aee aaa eeoc opeo p eoxoo coae opaoo a ca oae ceaa p a ocoe pao popaoo oecee cooo ypo, pax cpyeax cp poepoa, coax BM, aoooo pea pao.

Bu uaoa ey BM u nooamee. p coa APM copya p aee aae e paoaa opaa aoa ey ooaee BM. Copy p o ee ooeoc paoe a BM oy ycoo opaee a empe :

1 aee popapoae a aoo e ao BM;

2 ee oao xopoy ooy pao a ao APM, ae ero popaoe oeceee ocoe paoy a BM;

3 ee cay ooy pao a ao BM;

4 e aee aa popapoa BM.

oo cpo cpeeo ea ypae pe (e pecpa poepcx p poepo, oe opaa po, yxaep, aoo-ooec oe p.), ax opoca opaaooo ypae peax oe ooece aa, paea o po pee aeop. Cpy ceo ea ypae pe (pyooe p), peae eoe aa opaaooro ypae, a pao, e ae popapoae .

Bee aa, cax c ocao co aoo c BM, peye cooa a ceac c coo poeccoao ooo. ooy oopeeo c oco o popa cpea APM ooae o pe cyae peocae oee cpa, ooe oy eoxoe a pao a BM yo pee.

Ta, ceax aaa aa opaaooo ypae cy pae mun uaoa.

1. u, uuuupye BM, ocooae oae APM o ye eo popax oepapo. Xapaep pepo aoo aoa e e "e", p opo ooae pae o ecoo pex BM .

2. noeu op ae pyec BM, p opo ooae ae ceao oopae op a pae ce, a ae aapy opaaae op c oo popaoro oecee APM. O oao eo ocoe, o e oe .

3. uo eoyeoo nooe ee xapaepy ocoeoc, a eo oy coc e BM, ope e o oa .

4. uo c noo ucupoax apo uopauu peoaa, o BM pae oe cca . peyeco aoo aoa , o ocoy opa ae BM e opox cooe, a ooae o oo opoe oe (na Yes/No).

popao-mexoouecoe oecneeue APM compyuo up. Haoee a ooe popaoro oecee APM cpyo p e onep cucmea (OC), opa oe ceye ocoe y: oeceae eaco pax npopa o peex execx cpec, oeae epeoc porpa a pye cee ce, oaa pacpe ooo papao ycoepecoa pax popa, OC ae ae cpeca oep ao pa, ypae aa ax, oyao y (peeo oa oa ce) aoec ooa c .

B aoee pe eo ooe oeo OC epcoax . Oao aoee pacpocpaee oya oepaoa ccea MS DOS c ee pa .

B ocoe aoaa opaaooo ypae pe oy ee ceye mexouu:

opaoa eo eoa paa;

opaoa opax ax (a);

paoa c epcoa aa ax;

epeaa ax oye epe ce c;

coec ocy epaoa a.

peee ece pap (apep, Lexicon, Foton, ChiWriter p.) oo cyeceo oe aay coa pax oye, oe, ce .. oee ro, peee BM aece eaaeo ypoa a p ooex yoc o cpae c o ea aa oooc cooa oopeeo pycc ac aa, aaec opapoa aa paa e a pa, ocyec oe oc oey aey, e pae ea aee x paeax e p, oopao opoa pae pye ea eca, ya eo ..

B acee pe ooecx paceax ooe peee oy ae poeccop, ae, a SuperCalc-4, Lotus 1-2-3, Multiplan. popae cpea paae pee ceo yaoo coa ceaa-ooa oo e oo eo poo pyoee ooece pace, o ocyec aa pax aoacx ey coo ooecx oaaee, ppoa aepa a paa.

pa c epcoa aa ax cya popae poy, oocec accy ce ypae aa ax (C). C npecmaem coo npopay cucmey, nooy noe coaam cocmee a mpeyeo cmpymyp, ycmaaua ocu ey au, ocyecmm o, oppemupoy u yeue uopauu u ao, npocampuam ye ae, peopauoam ay ax, opupoam omem mo uu uo cmeneu coocmu. Cep peaaex a poo pe C oao po a co coa pae (a o pa yopoa, a o xapaepa) popae ce, opepoae a peee pa pya . K aoee pacpopae C occ DBASE-3, DBASE-4, FOXBASE+, CUPPER p.

oe cpca C c aee ooe ao ax, a a oeo cee o oecea epec ooaee pax aeop c ao ax. oe cpeca oa C oc a eepo ooe (epoe ooee coca ae , poe coece acceepa, pee aopece a PL, COBOL .., 60-e o ec a cooo ypo, oao op opao e, e y o eepo ooe).

eepo ooe coaac o py: " co opoe, e ". x poepoae ocoaoc a npuunax:

ya pao ( oe oece y yc, "aa" ay paoa);

ya acepca (paa oa a poca, a oo o ooo; oa e oa yeo pax oo oce);

eeceo a, ypae "opooo" cacca eo ( e oe peoa o ooaee aex yc ye cacca coepa oo eoecx x ooae, ope po aa);

ya pee ( e ceceo aep oe oo peaoa oae peo oye opa ee opaoe);

ya oo (exoo cey poepoa a opao, o poa o ooae, a p x ooe o ooo po "o" x aoaec);

ya oep (exa o eepo ooe ooe eo oc ee eec poe);

acya peyaa ( epo ooe poa ooae o pye pee paoopax aa).

Cep ox oooce, coyex C, ooo po. B pa ox cp oo e e oenuu: paeu u u. p cooa oe paee paa ceye : oca ax, aypoa a, apoco p. B acoc ocoeoce C coa o oca ax xo ce eope oca: cxe, ocxe, xpax ax, ex ax (xox, xox).

aypoa a paec a e oe py: poeype epoype. p ooa poeyp a ceye yaa, ae ec a a oea eoxoo o, o oy peya. B epoeypx ax yaae, o ao oy cee, a e a o oc.

poeype paac o oco opao a, op o a: oy , opepoae a oacy opaoy ax, , apaee a oepa a oeco ace.

oe cpa peaaa ooaee pax aeop: oex ooaee, ccex aao, poeccoax popac. oee ypo ox cpc, x "pyeo" po y, o ce oee co y ooae-epopaca caoceo, e o.

poea ce cpoo apa a papay opeoo APM copya p oe eo papeea ye coa ypoaoo pa APM, ao opx eeo ocoe po ooe APM c coecy ao popa oeceee. Toa p oppoa ooo APM (apep, APM poepa, APM aepa, APM yxaepa p, APM copya aooo oea p ..) eecoopao aoo coaa oee ooe ce, xapaepe oo ao opeo oa pee.

Kccuuau APM a upe. Moo e p acca aapoax paox e a pe:

APM pyooa p;

APM ceac p;

APM execoo cooaeoo epcoaa.

Heaco eex acco APM oy cyeeo ac py pya o cee "eeyaoc" o poex aeo pax popa o caoacpaaxc cce o opy oac eo copyo p.

au, oope p pea, oo opae a:

opaoo-cpaoe, coyye, a pao, aoy-o exooecoy poeccy (apep, peo poecc po);

opaaoo-ooece, peaee ocao eaco py o pya e pye ceao oepae a ;

oe opaaoo-ooece, opaoo cae ey coo, peye ceax cp opaa ee opeeee aop oca ae ax opa x ax (opaa coex po ecox p oopeex po ecox ce ..);

eoe opaaoo-ooece, opepoae a cooeyy ocyece poo oc ax x opay o yaa .

pyeao oep eeoc oo paoa p p coa APM oy cooa pae aape pae popae cpea. x coa ac o yoax aa o eeo: acpao-opaaoo, poeccoao-opeco execo (pyo).

Auucmpuo-opuoa paoma xapaepye 6o oeo yx oex pee a pax ypox . K ao eeoc oo oec: opo a coee pee peoo coa, poee coea opaaox epop a pe, pay c oe, aa eyeo coc e apoae p.

po-mopeca emeocm e peaepoaa ae ce papaoy oyeo, pe ypaeecx pee, aa opa ccoae poe a aeaecx oex.

Texueca (pymua) paoma xapaepye coo ee peaea poeyp ae apaa pee a x coee. K e ooc: oyee, epaa, xpaee ea oyeao opa, opo a ee oyeo ee eopooa.

aaa ao aeop eeo BM ocae paoo poa popa aa, oecea eoxo exoec ypoe pao APM. Oae ycoe oaoo cooa APM o yaao e eeo e ae e cepco cce oep pao oae, ae, apep, popa caooye pae a aaype, paa a opa opae c aoe a ax cax, exooece pyooa o poe opex o . Ccea oa ya po oepaoro ocyaa, .e. oea a opoc ooae: ya opac o ocya, a pacp oooc eo aapoaoo paoeo eca ..

APM pyoocma upu. Haoee co e opoc o ope cpyyp APM pyooe p. Paccop a a cpyyp ax APM: pacpeeea oaa.

B cyae pacnpeeeo cmpymyp APM pyoocma upu eocpeceo y pyooe axo oo ce, a ocoa yoaa ac APM c ooe cee xpa y ooa cepap. Pyooe ocyece aoe peeoe ypaee pao ope.

oo cmpymyp APM pyoocma upu xapaepa yoaa ayoc, oeceaa aoy pay. p epexoe a oy opaoy exoo oca pyooee p, oay, eecoopao pa pacpeeey cpyypy APM.

yceoo pa p ee pyooco oe ooopae y, a opx c e aoe: oepaoe ypaee pe pee. O ope eope oue mpeou APM pyoocma uu.

1. Hae ocaoo pao a ax, oco ooeo oepao ocepo . K opeeo a a o e ocy opaeoe co , a oe ee paea eocpeo o pyooe cooecyeo ypo.

2. Oeceee pyooe eo eocpece ooa oepaoo oca opa ae ax.

3. Hao pocae opa ope, aao cxooec xapaepca pyoe (paeco poo, apepoao epcopoao), p coo ypoe ee epa a pae, ce ax o pax co.

4. Hae aoox popax cp oecee p pee c acao aaae op cya.

5. Hae aoox popax cpec, peypyx opaaopcy acpay eeoc.

6. Oeceee oepao c c py ca opa peeax opaaoo pyyp p ocoeo c eocpc .

7. pocoa pao p oeo (paec 100\%) aeo execx popax .

8. Oeceee ooo aoe a BM oa pee.

a, popaoe oeceee APM pyooe p oo coepa a y oce oecee eoo eeoc (O), oecee p pee (OP), oecee pyx pao (OPP) oecee oya (). Ocooe opaooe aoee yaax occe pacpeeeo cpyype APM . poo cooac oyae c x paox e c epaoa aa ax. Ceye oepy, APM pyooe oe eo yopoa, ec oo opaec o "epa" a c opaoy ay pyoo p, a e o epaoae a ax, o oae opaoe a ceaco.

APM cneuaucma upu. K ceaca p oo oe copyo oa ee opaee, a ae poepo, apeoax a ao pe. Bce o poeccoaa opeeeo cepe eeo, x aoapoae paoe ea o peoa aoy ooo pee cero poo aaecy eyy pao, acao coy ceooy opa. Peya x eeoc, a pao, ec oyem, papaoa ceao. ooa oyea ae opec poecc coae caoo oyea exec poecc ero oope. pe epeo oce aa ooo 40\% oeo pee papao oyea. poeccoaa opea ceaca opeee ocoe mpeoau popaoy execoy oecee APM copya p, a eo:

oooc pao c epcoao peo aa ax;

cocooc ee oyaooro aoa c ooe oa opa;

oooc oepoa aapyex poecco c ye aoeoo oa;

oeceee cooo ypo ooyoaoc oc ce.

Ka APM pyooe p, APM ceaca p ae e e oce O, OPP, OK, a ae occey oecee poeccoao eeo (). p occea O oo coep eoo a ceaa (C), oecea eo oceey . Ocooe aaee C coc coepecoa opaa o pao ceaca (poa aca a, epo cepeap, eeo cpao, ayp, epo a-pa ..). B O xo paa aa ax, a ae aop cpe poe ooecx paco oepoa. Ceye o oooc a ax APM ceaa p oecea eceeoy oe. Oo ceac caooeo apya copooa co ay ax.

ae, c oop paoae ceac p, ocoo e oyea (a) xapaep paec cea papy o coa ee aeop, oa, opac, a apo, eca e, oype cpoca peoe .. Beca oe cyae e ee coa a ax p a-

apx cpaoo, accapo, oye, a ae popax ae, oox poo aa, poo, cep ..

occea OPP APM ceaca p o coey coay aae aaoa OPP APM pyoe p. x oe aae ecoc cooa ceaco ce pao opao ec (OT), ooeo cceo e apxa. oce oo coaa e apx aapx eco, aoo, pyyp o oy (). Cea ec cocae epoo oe ocooac eoxo ec apxa, o oopoy c oo cce OT oe ooe o oye. Ccey ee apxa ooe e ca ceac p, a a apx e eo ao. cooae p oca opa p cocae oye aeo copaa pe pyx oepa yeae pe a opecy .

AM mexuecoo paomua upu. Texece pao, a pao, o pyy pay, peyy oe opeex poeccoax . x oco yuu c:

o opa a BM;

oopee oye (ea, papoae, pacca ..);

eee apxo;

opo eeeoo paoeo aa pyooee (cepeap, oo pyooee);

opaa xoe cxoe oyea;

opo ceco eeoc.

Bce y c coo cee eoc oo aapoa, coy APM execoo paoa a ae BM. B cyae oceae e oo cee ooooc yeoc pya, o paoa ao oee paoopao epeco, pacpec yoa aao ce.

B oe cyae APM execoo paa e aoee o, .e. eee ac o ce ypee, opaa. Maccooe pooo pacpocpaee ax APM oe ca o ocox peepo oe pooeoc ypaeecoo pya.

Ocooe peoae popa exec cpea APM execoo paoa coc oecee acao "pyeceo" poooc: yooe pacooee execx cp; cooe aeo yao opa; poc ao c ocaa p epax ecx ooae; ae execx cpe ea papoa oyo; ooo e apxo p.

 


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