Navigation: Lib | | | | | |

:

:

:

: 4196


1.3. b p.

 

yeo oa ocoeoce pao p x eoxoo accpoa, .e. oe opeeee py, coeceo paoy pay acca. (o po acca ceye oa xapaepe, oee ocoeoc, ooe oe yopye p opeeee py.) K npuaa accuuauu up ooc:

peoro oapa;

p opraa (po ocyapca opaa p);

paooe ooee (cayc p);

opa yac oceee pex opax;

oeaypa oapo, xc oeo peoo opa;

eco po poo opoe;

cepa eeoc;

peoaa pex ceo;

xapaep eeoc.

1. B upoo npamue acoc o a peoro oapa npumo em moape u moapo-cpee, ooe, ame upu u upu mpya. Coaco aoy P " oapx pax peo poe" "o moapo upe nouaemc opauau c npaau puuecoo ua, opupya onmo po nyme opauauu u peyupoau upeo mo-ou, ocyecmeo ope acx nyux mopo, npooux apaee onpeeeo ecme u onpeeeoe pe no ycmaoe e npaua".*

* 20 1992 ..1. . 2. . 1.

 

Coae aoepx oec, poc yca pep a, cooae ocyapco ex ya oocpooro ecpoa acpoa ocyapcex popa oa po oe eco pacpeoc pa ex ya a eoxooc peypoa x e co copo ocyapca. o epe oppoa pa ex ya oae eoxooc ypee ceax opao, ocoo ye oopx c opo peypoae oopoa ex ya, ee yeca p. Ta coa ooe p, cyecoae oopx oycoeo poo pao yopoa acox po.

ooe p pa ae pooy, apay eey epapxecy, epay ccey opaceoro epepaceee acox . ooy ooa upa npecmaem coo nocmoo ecmyu peyupye po ex ya. Oa coae oooc oa acox pecypco x cooa p oocpoo ecpoa ocyapcex popa oa.

Ceye oe, o a pyeo copeee ooe p pepac e oo opa, peypye aoae acoe p cpa, e o paeac, o opaa, opeee op, apae xapaep pa eyapox xocex ce.

opaa ocya pa ocpao a coac ceae ae p. Bae p cy coe ce po a copeeo ae aoee eco opopyc co copo cyapca ( e aa Pocc) oe o pyx o p. Mpoo o ceecye, o aee po ao p ye oocoea o opo e yaa.

Ocooe oeco p, ox Pocc 1990-1991 ., poc a oape oapo-ooe. co oox ax p paec e o. o coco a 12 ayca 1991 . Pocc coe opaa ac o apecppoao 110 p*, x epe oox (Ca-eepypa, Coa (Moca), Mococa eyapoa ooa, Mococa ooa) p ax (Mococa eaoca, Ca-eepypca aa, Cpca eaoca).

*ooa . 1991. 40. C. 17.

 

B epe o eeoc ae cpae ocycoao aooaeoe paeee p a oape, ooe ae, ooy oape p opoa a oapa, a e yaa, a ooe ceapoac oo a ex yaax. B acoee pe oape p e pao opoa e yaa oo p a ceaoro oooro oea cooecye e a opro e yaa.

oee ceax oapo-oox p poccco ooe cao c e, o copee ocpea (opoa) oee paoa a oo pe oopeeo a c oapa, a c e yaa. Kpoe oo, paeee po peye o poaa e oo ooeoro pee, o ooex cpec, apep, a oyy pa opo a pax pax. yaec, aeee pae pa ycee oypeo op ooe Pocc opeye ceaa p. o ye peyao pa caoo pa eaco o eaeca rocyapca poe .

2. o npuuny opauauu (pou ocyapcma coauu up) eo pauam a ua up:

yo-paoe (ocyapcee p);

aco-paoe (ace p).

, oce yo-paoo xapaep, Pocc opo ocyapco coac a ocoe aoa P o pax. eo ao p oe ca o pepae aoo aoa, aece opo peecp e opeee aep oopoa. a, e ec ea p, ae ovcac coepe oepa coaco popeae pao ea. Tae p pacpocpae Epoe (pa, e, oa).

p, ee aco-paoo xapaep, paoa A, CA. Ha p op ocy oo yoro pya , xox pey . co eo ax p opaeo. p oro a c ae oeca. x yca aa ec a opeeeoe oeco ae (cepao). Ka e p oe aee xo ooro a (cepaa), oop ae ey pao aa ce oee p.

copec p Pocc e cayc yo-paooro ya, axoeoc o opoe eocpeceo ee ceax ocyapcex opao ypae. Tao cayc pocccx p oycoac epaoc opoo-ocpeeco eeoc ae cpae eocao pyx acx aao, cocox oece opaoe x yopoae.

p opaa p Pocc 1990-1991 . a ceaa oa pa cayc aco-paooro cya, eeoc oopoo ea po caoopaa caoypae peoro cooeca. Bo co cyae p coaac e a ocyapcee opaa, aae opeeeoe eco epapx ocyapceoo ypae o y opao eo occaa, a a aoepe oeca.

Moe ooc ooc poccce p ac po accoa, oope pyoocyc apy c oa aooaeco coce paa caoypae.* O ca, o a ac xapaep p yaae e oo ype yca, peaepy ee eeoc, o oaoc peoro coea (oea) oac oo epe O copae ee eo, ocyce oaoo aae a ooc pyooce p ( ce a o aepa).

* C.: poe caoe oapx p CCCP // Bopoc oo 1991. 7. . 48.

 

3. Coae upu ocoo peucmpupoauc a auoe oecma uu moapuecma c opaueo omemcme.

Ocoeo a epep p ypeac a oapec (oeca) c opaeo oeceoc (Bopyca a pa, Aaca oapa pa, poca oapo-cea pa, Kyacca eyapoa apo-cpea p ..), o ococ ypoe eoo ooeco yyp, pa, a ae ocyce eco paoo oco, epye x coae yopoae. o peoca ypee p oy cooy p orooe eoxo oyeo, ooo ao ao exa ypae papeee p, oop aoe cee ycpaa x. peee peao o, o pa ope oapec oa apecppoaa ecx opax ac. Oe p percppoac a ace yae pep (apep, pa "Aca").

B c c e o ocyapco oao oaa coece pa, opepoa a eoepec xapaep eeoc, c 1993 . p aa peopaoac eoepece acoa. Kpoe o, opaaoo-paoa opa e acoa oeae aoy P " oapx pax peo oproe" cococye oee eo cpyype ee ypa.

4. o ope yacmu nocemumee mopax upu oym m ompmu u .

B mopax a apmx upax pa yace ee ocoe e, oe po pex ocpeo, ooy ocaoo cooo poeccoaa.

B mopax a ompmx upax, poe ocox eo pex ocpeo, oy pa yace ocee. p ope p a yx o:

co ("eao") opa pa, a oopo opaeo e oa ooac ycya ocpeo. x ae ooe oe e , a a a ax pax oeceaec coo ocy peoe oo e- aao-oyaee (e ao cyae oeope peoee, a aa cpoc). Ta opao, co opa pa xapaepyec p c pooee opeee;

pa pa ceaoo a, a opo eocpeceo c poaa oyae pyc e py ocpeo;

1) poep, paoae o e a ce ea;

2) ep, ocyece oepa a pe o coeo e a co ce.

B cooec c ycaa oco oapx p ae cpae c ap, xo yee peoo oopoa oa peac opa eocpecee e (poa oyae) ye aee x cayco paooo ocooo ocee ae ceo oepaoo ae.

K pa apo a oo oec ae p, a Poccca oapo-cpea pa, Cpca oapo-cpea p, Mococa eyapoa ooa, Kyacca eyapoa oapo-cpea; pa opo a ca Mococy apy py, Mepecyacy yepay, Pocapopy. Cee opoc peoro copa eocpeceo caa c opoo cpaee p, ae ceo opoc p coyec peax ex oe . K oy e opoc p oo oc epaoc peoo exaa, ooero yacoa opax epoeccoa yaca peoro pa. Coepecoae peo opo po oee apy xapaepy eeoc, opepye a poc poeccoaa, oppoae eox ce a ocoe aoo oep ey opy, oopoo eoxo opaee ca cyaoro ocee ocoa coeca paoa a pe.

Kpoe o, ap xapaep p cooecye cao ee oe a opaa (accoa) opyx (ocpe), coaaeo oecee opro yoeope epeco, a e pee ecpoa aaa. ooy p, aae epec opo, ap xapaep oee peoee.

5. o oeamype moapo, uxc o6emo upeoo opa, ou nopaemc a yuepcae (oeo muna) u euauupoae.

a yuepcax upax eyc op o pooy pyy paoopax oapo.

Cneuauupoae upu e ooapy ceaa ceaa o pya oapo. Cpe x e p pooro po yoceapoae.

p coa oapx p poceaac ee x ceaa, o o ocoeo xapaepo p, coaaex ecax aoe oepa poeoro pooca.

Cy ceaa coc oy, o aoep (e) p ee ceapoao ce peac eocpecee pooe o o oapo py. Ta ocaec coa cee oepa cooecyeo oapa a pe yeaec peo opo oopo.

Toape p, opoaec Pocc, c peyeceo yepca. oeo cao c eoxooc acao oepa oapo ycox opa-eoro pooo oea oapx . Oao, a ye oeaoc, ceaa oapx p ye aaac. p o cneuauau up aucum o pa aopo:

) eca ooe p. Hapep, co, o Teca oapo-ooa pa ye ceapoac a opoe e poya ee epepao, a Kyea oapo-cpea pa a ye;

) ypeee eo p, a ae aoce ey .

Coaco coa ococaapa PCCP o coco a 12.08.1991 , 85\% p o oeo x ca c yepca, apyc a poo cepe poy oapo. aa oapx p opepoac a poay epa, x ecoa oo epao paoe cpa. Kpoe oo, ee oaa p ceapoac a ye-poae opex o poy.

Ka oaae poa paa, npeuyecmau cneuauupoax up c: cee epe opro, ocaee aa ooopoax pooee, ee e, a oopy oy opepoac poa oyae (pooe opee), apoaa opaoa peoo caapa, a ae epcoro opaa a poy ceaa p.

6. B acoc o eca po p poo opoe, oex y opea a po x po e a eyapoe aoae.

Meyapoe upu npecmam coo oco u nocmoo ecmyeo onmooo pa, oxamau ecoo ocyapcm, a omopo coepamc ceu ynu-npoau a onpeeee upee moap.

Meyapoe p ocya opee poe oape ooe p. B paoe ax p oy yacoa pecae eox pyo pax . Oe ocoeoc eyapox p c oeceee coooo epeoa p, oyaeo o pe oepa, a ae aee ceyx (appax) ceo, oope a oooc oye p a pae opoax e a pax pax cpa.

Cpa, e pacooe eyapoe p, o coa cooecy a, opo aoo pe, oeceae x eeoc. Meyapoe p opaec a oape, ooe ae.

Meyapoe oape p cocpeooe pex cpaax: A, CA o. Ha o x cpa 90- roa pxooc 98\% cero eyapooo peoo o6opoa. K eyapo oap pa ooc: A oocy py OKC (epc Oc ce), oocy py eao p.; CA p, pacooee H-ope ao; o p, coepae ce c oapa, opaac a poo pe. Meyapo oap pa ca eoope p, ocyae peoae p, a oopx coepac ce o oe a oapo, apep, Beca (CA), apca, Ceca, Caca (ooca) p.

Hauoae upu ecmym npeeax ooo omeo moo ocyapcma, yumam ocoeocmu paumu npouocma opaeu u nompeeu amepuax pecypco, npucyue ao cmpae. Ba, aoo opo pe aoro ocyapca pey poee appax ceo yac peo opoe p - epeeo pa ecoaxoe p.

Moe p, ecyx Pocc, aac eyapo (apep, Mococa eyapoa ooa, Meyapoa pooocea pa, Kyacca eyapoa oapo-cpea pa). yaec, acoee pe ae cpae ooe ypee ca eyapo e, a a a, opo aoo pe, ecye ceac Pocc, e oecea coooo epeee p, oyaeo poecce peo . A yace opax ae cocae eo oex ocpax oa e ae ocoa ooc ae p eyapo.

7. B acoc om cep emeocmu upu ae cmpae oo ycoo paeum a empae (cmoue), epeuoae u peuoae .

Poccce p, x paeee xapaep eeoc o e opepyc a peoae ocoeoc oapx po ooecoe paopoae cpa. eopaecoe ooee p copee cooecye acpao-eppopaoy ee x eppopax opao occaa CCCP paee oox a ypae Mcepca opo. Ceye oe, o epppaoe ooee p cpae oo cooecoa epa opox ce pacopx ye, a o ee ec poo pae. Hapep, aypca pa oe Meyapoa H-opca pa oe, caxapa aao pacoaaec e ecax pooca, a epax eyapoo opo.

Bece c e pae peo opo Pocc cococoao oppoa epax p, oope cocpeooe Moce pea yac pex pax poao oyaee pax peoo Pocc (apep, cocae eo Poccco oapo-cpeo p 1991 . 46 o pyrx paoo cpa; poe oro, 20 x pecy CCCP).

Mepeoae p, a pao, oe pao pooca opee ax-o oapo, apep, Teco-ococa ea pa "epec".

oco p Pocc ceye oec oa peoa.

8. o xapamepy onepau upoa npamua upeo mopou eem ceyue u up:

peaoo oapa;

epce;

ooe;

ceae.

upa peaoo moapa xapaepa aaoro aa peo opo, ee oe epa ca peypoc oooe opa, pypoeoc opo opeeeoy ecy oeoc ycaoe paa, opo acco, oopo, cpaae o aecy oapa, oee ap oopx aoaee. Ha pax peaoo oapa coepee ceo ocyecec p ocyc apa a aooo a ocoe eo ocaeo xapaepc. p o e eco cpee peoe oyaee . Cao cyeceo epo p peaoro oapa c oaea poaa ocaa oapa oce poee .

B acoee pe a pyeo p peaoo oapa coxpac eoopx cpaax e eaee oopo. O peca coo, a pao, oy op ooo opro oapa ecoo ae, p oopo oa o oepae pooca, ca opee coac paaxc cpaax oe a aoae epec p cope aex x ocyapc oapo. Ca, pax aacecx cpaax p peaoo oapa o e ocaoc, xo o cex aaoepoecx ocyapcax o cx op cyecy ape p, oee opoe, aepo, pacope epepaaae p. Ceo p aac ocoo papaoo ox opao, a ae copo opa o pax ax cecoxocex oapo, a epo, aca, xoo p. Topoe oepa a x pax coca cero 10-15\% o oeo peoro oopoa.

Pacpee peo opo peo coa p ooo a epcx up. x opaoae opaae pepaee p pa peaoo oapa po pa a oap. Oco paa epco opo c:

xapaep ceo;

c c po peaoro oapa epe cpaxoae (xepoae), a e epe ocay oapa;

apaee cpoo opeeea ypoaa, ea ax-o yax ocoeoce opeea cooc oapa, coacoaoe oeco ooporo opaaec peo opae, oop caoc oe opo pecae coo pao a oap;

oa ya yco oca oapa;

oeeoc ce aeoc x opaeo, oeceaea Paceo aao p.

epce p c coeopa aco cya, ocya opo. ae cero o coac ecax aoe oepa eex pecypco, .e eyx acox epax.

e aocoo peoa, ocaoo acc coox eex cpec epca po eooa.

pepaee oapo p pa apo po pa a ap, pa peaoo apa po oo oapoo aaa o eoeea ac poecca yce acooo aaa.

yy ceec aco cyo, ocya opeoc oapx po, epca pa oopeeo pecae coo po e cooecyx oapo oaae cyeceoe e a pee opo, a aece e opex ceo c pea oapo (epe xepoae) oeo cee a oypeococooc p.

epca pa a aco cy ooe aocoe peoae p a ca peaa oceyeo xpae apa eo yeee.

Onuoe upu ae pa oy po poo ooe. O coyc cpaxoa yaco peo opo, a a a oooc oyae ooo opa ooe y p ae pex ceo.

Ec epce p o ye ao ( CA ao paoa c 1848 .), o ooe p oc coce eao ( 80-x oax XX .). ooy a ox pax oy aac a epce, a ooe e (ooca pa OKC). pocccx p ooo aee a oo pe cex o ceo: c pea oapo, epcx oox. ooy x oo oec cea upa.

9. B acoc om xapamepa emeocmu emc upu npue (oepecue) u ecnpue (eoepecue),

ocoy p opaoac a ce oee aao (eex cpec) ooceo eooo ca aoepo-ecopo, o coaco oeoy ay yca aa oa oy opeeey p, oeay e eo. B oce cyae pa coaaac a oeee poao ypoe x oepa a pe. ooy epoaao eee p o pao cao p e peycapaoc. p oec y aoro oeoo yaca o coepe pox oepa a cao pe. Heoxooc oepeco eeoc p aaec oecee ea cox eo. Ta, epoaao a pocccx pax ea eco y-poaa poepc eca (.e. opo pao aac peo eeoc).

Ceye ee pa oepy, o pa o eoepeca opaa, oa coaec ypee ea oee poee oepecx oepa ( ocya opeoce ypeee eo ye-poae). e o opaa p coco ce apa y ee ypeee eo p poee oepecx eo. eee cpeca ypeee eo p, oyee a opa, aee a pe, apac a oeca apa, cax c yopoae p, cypoae coa ooe oopyoa exooecoro poecca pep-ypeee eo p, oee aeca ycaeo poy, opoee pae oypeo op, pepoc, oepeco yca coceoro occa pepaee.

 

B p oo pea cey opao (a. 1).

 

Taa 1. B P

 

/

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

6

 

7

 

8

 

9

 

 

( )

 

 

,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

()

-

()

 

( )

 

 

 

( )

 

 

()

()

 

 

()

()

 

 

-

-

 

(,,,,)

 

 

 

 


Загрузка...

| |

: 1 2 3 4 5


...