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12.2. abtoatpobahhe paoe ecta acthkob pebo etehoct ha ae b

Koeyaoe oe AP yaca peo eeoc a ae B o poco B a paoe coe, apep, poepa, aepa, pyooe p coco o, o AP opa apxeypa B yoao, ec pooec acpaaec a opeoo ooae (epcoaoe AP) pyy ooaee (ce AP). o poecc eooae (ocoeo p aaa pao ceaco), epeo oa ooo cepee pyoc oocoa opeee ox peoa AP, opepoax a peee pax aa. eceo, c oo copo, ceaca p (poepa, epa, aepa) ao peoca oooc pea aa, oocec pa ca x pao pa poeccoa opea (cceoae pa, oc opaeo y-poa, aa eca pex e ..), a c pyo pyooe p (poepcx oop) o e oooc ypa poecco eppoa peya pao ceac oee pye opaoe acc p pee.

Aoapoaoe paoee eco pea (AP) pecae coo cooyoc eoecx, ox, opaox, popax execx cpec, oeceax paoy a B oac peo eeoc (pc.12.1).

aa cocaa AP o cea aoa oae B, a ae popaa ccea, peaya o oeceaa eee eoxoo a ax o pe. ooae poepyec, a pao, epoeyp poeccoao-opepoa. Eo ocoy coca ep, eoxoe pao oac peo opo. Oeceaa ac AP-pea opa-ye opaoo-aepay ocoy ae opaooe, popaoe execoe oeceee, coyeoe yaca peo eeoc pee cox ypaeecx opaaox aa.

opaooe oeceee o cooyoc peaoax pee o oey, paee opa opaa opa, eoxoo yopoa AP-pea. Oo ae opao-cpa-oy opa o peo eeoc, ypoae ceae accap exo-ooeco opa cce oyea (apep, accaop oo oapx py, ccey oyea o poepco eeoc ..).

opo pecae opaa ax AP cya oye, acc a ax.

p poepoa AP-pea opaooe oeceee axo coe paee coa a aaeo uopauoo a upu () a cooyocu yopoeo u opauoao co-oecyu opao .

Paa eay ypay opaoe a.

Beaa o ac , pecaa coo cooyoc cooe oyeo, coyex p yopoa pax AP a pe ope, ocpaeo ooaee x AP e pee cpec ceo ex. Bypaa ac , pecaa coo cooyoc coaaex coyex ax a ax ocex e opaox ao a ax.

oceeo p cooa ce oee ox B paec cpaec pa ey eao ypao aa, a a opa opayec eec eocpeceo B, x cex () cex oecax oee cooo ypo.

Ocoo oppoa opaoo a p cy oe a ax. Cce opao, ocpoee a o oe, oaa cey ococa:

a B coac, xpac opaaac e oo eeape ae, o coe cpyyp, oope opaoa ae;

cpyyppoae ax copaae x ypoae, a ceoaeo, po oo a a ex ocex (o ocoeo ao B), oae aeoc ocoepoc opa (o ee ooe aee AP);

a ax coac, ocac, cyecy ayapyc eaco o pax popa;

oeceaec epa opa, c c e a opa caoc oeo opao ox ooaee AP;

ccea opao ec oee cpoo aeo, a apa a ee eee ocyae .

aee aoaa eeoc opeo p eoxoo coae opaoo a ca ooae-ceaca p a ocoe paoo popaoo oecee cooo ypo, pax cpyeax cpec poepoa, coax B, aoooo pea pao.

B aoa ey B ooaee. p coa AP copya p aee aae ec paoaa opaa aoa ey ooaee B. Copy p o cee oooeoc paoe a B oy ycoo opaee a epe aeop:

1 aee popapoae a aoo e ao B;

2 ee oooy coyeo ao AP popao oecee ocaoo xopoo ocoe paoy a B;

3 ee cay oooy pao a ao B;

4 e ee ao popapoa paoe a B.

oco copyo cpeeo ea ypae pe (oe pecpa poepcx oop poepo, oe opaa po, yxaep, aoo-ooec oe p.), ax opoca opaaooo ypae peax oe ooece aa, o p-aea o opo pee aeop.

K eepo aeop oo oec copyo ceo ea ypae pe (pyooe p), peax eoe aa opaaooo ypae. P aa, apep aa eopaoao opao ax, peye ocaoo cooo aoa c B, oe oopoo oy oaac oo o ooae epo opo aeop. ooy oopeeo c oco o popa cpeca AP ooae o pe cyae peocae ooee cpeca, ooe oy eoxoe a pao a B yo pee.

Ta, cceax aoaa aa opaaooo ypae coyc pae u uaoa:

uao, uuuupye B, ocooae ooae AP o ye eo popax oepaopo. Xapaep pepo aoo aoa ec eo e, p oopo ooae pae o ecoo peoex B apao;

uao aoe op ae pyec B. ooae aoe ceao oopae op a pae ce, a ae aapye opaaae op c oo popaoo oecee AP. Tao ao ocaoo eo ocoe, o e oe o;

uao eoyeoo ooae ee xapaepy ocoeoc, a eo oy coc oeo B, oope e o oca y ooae coe ooceo eo oceyx ec;

uao c oo ucupoax apo uopauu peoaae, o B pae oo oe cca exc. peyeco aoo aoa o, ocoy opa ae B e opox cooe, a ooae o oo opoe oe (a es/o).

B acoee pe oee 40 opaox aec ecy a pe peo opa. Cpe x xopoo ec p Peep, pa, TAP TACC, AK&һ, PocecKoca, ocyec-e oop oee 100 eeex eeeex a, a ae pao eee.

Bay po caoe opaoo cocae pacpyyp oooo pa pae eaoc aco o (), oop, eppy opa epocoo (ao, p, poepcx oop ..), coae poeccoay cpey pao a pe, peoca co ea popae cpeca epcoaoo ocya opa pee peaoo pee.

ae ao pa opaooo oecee oooo pa caa eeoc Poccco opoo cce (PTC). Boooc cooa aa o o oo opaac a o cce-e, PTC o ox ooex cxoa c aepaco aoapoao cceo opo Haoao accoa oox epo ASDAQ. poeccoaoe cooeco coec yc paae ceee oooc cce, acoc eao a pecaea oa epc poee caox opo a ooo pe paax PTC. Ee opao cepc ooe copa oo aope epecye poepa a c a pecaee opoo o peoe poae, ec ce opo a oo oa y pax poepo, peca aoee ey opa o ao eo yae, o peoe pax poepcx p.

popaoe oeceee. O ooeo popaoo oecee AP-pea ec oepaoa cce (OC), oa ceye ocoe y: oeceae eacoc pax popa o peex execx cpec, oeae epeoc popa a pye cee cce, oaae pacpe oooc papao ycoepecoa pax popa. OC ae ae cpeca oep ao pa, ypae aa ax, oyao y (peeo oa oa ce) aoec ooae c cceo.

o oceeo pee aoee pacpocpaee ea oepaoa ccea S-DOS c ee pa epc. Ha cey e pxo oee copeee Widows 95.

B ocoe aoaa ypae peo eeoc oy ee ceye exoo:

opaoa eco eoa paa;

opaoa opax ax (a);

paoa c epcoa aa ax;

epeaa ax oyeo epe ce c;

coec ocy epaoa a.

peee ecoe peaop (apep, icosoft Wod) oo cyeceo oe aay coa pax oyeo, oeo, ce p.

ooe peee acoee pe ooecx paceo oy ae poeccop (apep, icosoft Excel). popae cpeca peaae pee ceo yaoo cooa ceaca-ooca oo e o eo poo pyoee ooece pace, o ocyec aa pax aoacx ey coo ooecx oaaee. oee oo, ocao poco cppyc a .

pao c epcoa aa ax cya popae poy, oocec accy cce ypae aa ax (C).

C pecae coo popay ccey, ooy ooae coaa cocee a peyeo cpyyp, ycaaa aoc ey a, ocyec o, oppepoy vaee opa ao, pocapa ye ae, peopaoa ay ax, oppoa oe o o cee cooc.

oe cpeca C c aee ooeo ao ax, a a oeo cee o oecea epec ooaee pax aeop c ao ax. p x poepoa coyc ceye p:

1. p ya pao: oe oece y yc, o aca ay paoa.

2. p ya acepca: paoa oa a poca, a oo o ooo; oa e oa yeo pax oo o oce.

3. p ececeoc a, ypae opooo cacca eo. e oe peoa o ooaee aex yc ye cacca coepa oo eoecx x ooae, oope cpo aac.

4. p ya pee. oe oo e cyeceo aep peaoa oae opeoc ocye opa ee opaoe.

5. p ya oo. Texoo oa cpoepoaa a opao, o poa o eoea, a y ec o o, o, o oooc, o x aoaec.

6. p ya . exa o oe oo eo oc ee eec poe.

7. p acya peyaa. peoca ooae o cpye pee paoopax aa.

Cep ox oooce, coyex C, ooo po. B pa ox cpec oo eu e oeuu: paee u uepauu.

p cooa oe paee paa ceye : oca ax aypoa a, apoco p. B acoc o ocoeoce C coca o oca ax xo ce eoope oca: cxe, ocxe, xpax ax, ex ax (xox, xox).

aypoa a paec a e oe py: poeype . p ooa poeyp a ao yaa, ae ec a a oea eoxoo o, o oy peya. B epoeypx ax yaaec, o ao oy oee, a e a oo oc.

poeype oy paac o oco opao ea, oop o aypy. o oy , opepoae a oacy opaoy ax a oepa a oeco ace.

oe cpeca peaaac ooaee pax aeop: oex ooaee, ccex aao, poeccoax po. oee ypo ox cpec, x pyeoc po oy, o ce oee co y oec ooae-epopaca caoceo, e ocpeo.

Aa copeeoo coco popaoo oecee AP ooe cea o, o acoee pe papaoa oo accop-e yepcax popax poyo cceoo paoo xa-paepa (a. 12.1).

 

cooae oo popaoo oecee ycop papaoy epee cooex AP-peo.

poea ce cpoo apa a papaoy opeoo AP-copya p oe eo papeea ye coa ypoaoo pa AP, ao oopx eeo ocooe po ooe AP c cooecy ao popa oeceee. Toa p oppoa ooo AP (apep, AP-poepa, AP-aepa, AP-yxaep p, AP-copya pooo oea p ..) eecoopao aoo coaa oee ooe cce, xapaepe oo ao opeo oac pee.

Texecoe oeceee. K execoy oecee oo ooc coceo epcoae B cpeca oya ey .

o epcoao B oaec epoa cea aa, oeocya accooo ooae yepcaa peex paoopax aa.

Tpeoae oeocyoc accooo ooae ae ceye oaae:

eea B yax ooaee;

aoooc cyaa e ceax peoa yco opyae cpe;

pyeceoc, cpoa oye cooa, oeceae paoy eoooeoy ooae;

aeoc, apyac a coo ypoe epa ee ooeo, a ae oepaoc aeco ocya.

oaae cooc B p ee popee e ee peaeo ae. opao aee ypoe oceyeo copooe, aeco popaoo oecee aeoc. Haae apa p aye pacxo a cyaa eee eoo a B oy paac ecoo pa a ce ooe ox aapax ocoeo popax cpec.

epcaoc B peex paoopax aa ae:

oc apxeyp, oeceaa ee aaoc paoopa pee cepe ypae;

poc apxeyp, ooa poo ee ocoy oepa ye ee ox aapao-popax cpec;

coecoc B pax pooee a ypoe eeo epeca opaox ocee, oeceaa po oe popa poya;

oooc oeoo cooa opoocoeo epepoo oopyoa, ocya aa ax aoo oea opae a ce oe ce ce.

popaoe oeceee B, peeoe ccee ypae pe, oo peoca copyy p oooc opao eco, poee ax ce, peopaoa opa ooo a pyo (apep, ao paecy), a ae opaa a ax. p o exoo pao a pae oa acao pea po eeoc ooae (a coa c paoe oyea, paoa co caap opa oyeo ..).

Copy p, a pao, e oaa poeccoa a oac popapoa ocya epoo ex, x ex coyec oepaa ccea apaoo oo ocy-a B.

pooe cooae B yopoa p, o cyecy, peye coaa opeee p aoapoax paox ec, oopx B yac peo eeoc ca oec- aapoa oy. B o cyae ep aoapoa eco cee eaopa, a a oe ypaeece pee pyo oac aoaa, oc opec xapaep ac o cooyoc oex cyex aopo.

B acoee pe oo oop o aoaa oo oee oo eoopx poeyp, apyxc a popao oepe oecee opaoo exoo (ecoe ae poeccop, pae op, a ax ..). ae execx paoo aoaa oaec oo ac x opaox opeoce.

pe peee oya, e oa .. o o, o ce cxooec, pa eaeo acao ypo-c (exapoa). ooy B a paoe coe yaca peo op oa o copee y coopooeoo eeyaoo acccea (opaa xpae opa aoo cpyyp, oc, coppoa, cocaee oeo, ocpoeee ax a pae), ee aoaa opaaooo ypae. Too c yeo aoo oxoa pecaec oppe pacpocpa a opey pey eeoc oe aoapoaoo paoeo eca, a a pe ao cyae e o epcoao oepe ypae.

aa ax. Oo aex poe p ocpoe aeo opaoo cpyyp a ae B ec oeceee a peo opa. Oa oxaae a ecy ay a-x ccex popa, a ay o ecaopoaoo ocya a, epeaae o aaa c. Ta opao, oe aa ax ae opoc eococ ax ypae ocya a (caopoaoc) a pe.

aoee eoo cooa opaoax a pae cpec a ax, x ee eoxoo peycapa ye a pax cax poepoa cce ypae peo eeoc. Opaa oax cee a pax ee opae oe: ce oepe poeyp ecoo opae ocya B caoc ee ep poe epeeaec opaa opo a oe cooae ax. p o oeoo cooa coxpaec poea a o opa aoo ooae ce.

Coxpaee eococ ax ee opaao exooec ace. Opauauo ace ae ceye paa:

oce opa ceye xpa ecax, eocyx ocopox ;

aa opa oa e ecoo o a pax ocex;

aa ax a eco ao ce oa oepac epoec opoae a e ae oce. acoa opoa paec coopae a cpeeo pee a o-poae a occaoee opa oce oceeo opoa cyae ooe eeo opoao epc;

ae, oocec pa aaa, eecoopao xpa oeo;

eoxoo cpoo pyoocoac paa opae c a oce.

Texooec ace ca c pa a opae, oope oepac cpyypo cce ypae aa ax (C) o ocy ooae. Cyecy opae:

ooe opeeex apyo c e coxpae eoxox poop ey x cap o ae;

peye coxpae ae o oaae eoopo aaoe;

cae c aa y acoc.

Oeceee caopoaoc cooa ax eooao oxaae ocoo opoc a ax o eeaeo oa yoe, a ae o ecaopoaoo x e. oo e p ooex exaa ypae ocyo a: ea ooae, ocpecea (eca) aa ax oepa pa ocya ooae a c oooc x epea.

Haoee e cpeca opaox oya execo oecee AP-pea (AP) acoee pe c eyapoe cce Iteet, eutes, Tefoe, a ae Poccce cce opTeeKypc p.

Kacca AP. oo e p acca aoapoax paox ec a pe:

AP pyooca p;

AP ceaco p;

AP execoo cooaeoo epcoaa.

Heaco o eex acco aoapoae paoe eca oy cyeceo oac py o pya o cee eeyaoc o pocex aeo pax popa () o caoacpa-axc cce o opey oac eeoc copyo p.

aau peaee p o, oo opae a:

opaoo-cpaoe, coycye, a pao, aoy-o exooecoy poeccy (apep, poecc opo);

opaaoo-ooece, peaee ocaoo eaco py o pya e peye ceao oepae a ax;

oe opaaoo-ooece, opaoo cae ey coo, peye ceax cpec opaa ee opeeee aop oca ae ax opao x ax (opaa coecx opo ecox p, opaa oopeex opo ecox ce ..);

eoe opaaoo-ooece, opepoae a cooecyy ocyece poo oc ax x opaoy o yaa ooae.

cpyeao oep eeoc oo paoa p p coa AP oy cooa pae caape pae popae cpeca. x coca ac o yoax aa o pao: acpao-opaaoo, poeccoao-opeco execo (pyo).

Auucpauo-opauauoa paoa xapaepyec o oeco yx oex pee a pax ypox ypae. K e oo oec: opo coe pee peoo coea, poeee coea opaaox epop a pe, paoy c oe, aa eyeo coco e apoae pao p.

poeccuoao-opeca paoa e peaepoaa ae papaoy oyeo, pe ypaeecx pee, aa opa cceoae poe a aeaecx oex.

Texueca (pyua) paoa xapaepyec coo cee peaea poeyp ae apaa pee a x coee. K ao paoe oo oec: oyee, epeay, xpaee e-a oyeao opa, opo a ee oyeo eee eopooca.

aoaa ao aeop pao epcoae B ocae paoo poa popa aea, oecea eoxo exooec ypoe pao AP. Oae ycoe o- aoo cooa AP o yaax e pao ec ae e cepco cce oep pao ooae, ae, apep, popa caooye paoe a aaype, paa a opa opae c aoe a ax cax, exooecoe pyooco o poee opex o pao. Ccea oa oea a opoc ooae, ya opac o ocya-, a pacp oooc o AP ..

AP pyooca uu. Haoee co ec opoc o ope cpyyp AP pyooe p. Paccop a a cpyyp ax AP: pacpeeea oaoaa.

B cyae pacpeeeo cpyyp AP pyooca p eocpeceo y pyooe axoc oo ce, a ocoa yoaa ac AP c ooe cee pacoaaec y ooa cepeap. Pyooe ocyece aoe peeoe ypaee pao opae.

oaoao cpyyp AP pyooca p xapaepa yoaa ayoc, oeceaa aooy paoy. p epexoe a oy opaoy exoo o-ca pyooee p, oay, eecoopao pa pacpeeey cpyypy AP.

ceo ooopa y pyooe p oo e e aoe: oepaoe ypaee pe pee. O opee eoope oue peoau AP pyooca upu:

1. Hae ocaoo pao a ax, ocoo ooeo oepao ocoepo opae. K ac o a oo e ocy opaeoe co , a oe ee paea eocpeceo oo pyooe cooecyeo ypo.

2. Oeceee pyooe eo eocpece ooa oepaoo oca opa ae ax.

3. Haoc pecae opa ope, aao cxooec xapaepca pyooe (paeco poo, apepoao epcopoao) p coo ypoe ee epa a pae, o ce ax o pax coo.

4. Hae aoox popax cpec oecee p pee c acao aaae ope cya.

5. Hae aoox popax cpec, peypyx opaaopcy acpay eeoc.

6. Oeceee oepao c c py coa opa peeax opaaoo cpyyp p ocoeo c eocpece ooa.

7. pocoa pao p oeo (paec 100\%) aeoc execx popax cpec.

8. Oeceee oooc aoe a B oa pee. a, popaoe oeceee AP pyooe p oo coepa a y occe oecee eoo eeoc (O), oecee p pee (OP), oecee pyx pao (OPP) oecee oya (OK). Ocooe opaooe aoee yaax occe pacpeeeo cpyype AP pyooe p poo oo cepeap. p o poo cooac oyae c x paox ec c epaoa aa ax. AP pyooe oe eo yopoa oo , ec oo opaec o epa a c opaoy ay pyooo p, a e oo epaoae a ax, o oae opaoe a ceaco.

AP ceuauca upu. K ceaca p oo oec copyo oca opaee p, a ae poepo, apeoax a ao pe. Bce o c poeccoaa opeeeo cepe eeoc, x aoapoae paoe eca o peoca aoy oooc pee ceo poo aaecy eyy paoy, acao coy ceooy opa. Pey-ao x eeoc, a pao, ec oye, cocae ceaco. ooa oyea ae opec poecc cocae caoo oyea exec poecc eo oope. pe epeo oopee aae ooo 40\% oeo pee papao oyea. poeccoaa opea ceaca opeee ocoe peoa popaoy execoy oecee AP pea, a eo:

oooc pao c epcoao peo aa ax;

oooc ee oyaooo aoa c ooe coa opa;

oooc oepoa aapyex poecco c yeo aoeoo oa;

oeceee cooo ypo ooyoaoc oc cce,

Aaoo AP pyooe p AP ceaca p oo a e e occe O, OPP, OK c occey oecee poeccoao eeoc (O). p o occea O coep-, a pao, eoo ae ceaca (C), oecea eo oceey eeoc.

Ocooe aaee oo aea coco coepecoa opaa o pao ceaca (epoa aca a, epo cepeap, eeo cpao, ayop, epo a-pa ..). O coep pay ay ax, a ae aop cpec poee ooecx paceo oepoa. aa ax AP ceaca p oa oecea ececeoy oe, oo ceac caocoeo apya copooa co ay ax.

ae, c oop paoae ceac p, ocoo e oyea (a) xapaep paec cea papyc o coca ee aeop, oa, opac, a oapo, eca e, oype cpoca peoe .. Beca oe ao cyae ec ee coca a ax p caapx cpaoo, accaopo, oyeo, a ae popax aeo, oox poo cep, poo, aa ..

occea OPP AP ceaca p o coey cocay aae aaoa OPP AP pyooe p. Oe coco ecoc cooa ceaco cce pao opao eco (OT), ooeo cceo ee apxa. oce ooe coaa ec apx caapx eco, aoo, cpyyp o oyeo (opao). Ceac eco cocae epoo oe ocooac eoxo eco apxa, o oopoy c oo cce OT oe ooe o oye. Ccey ee apxa ooe ee ca ceac p, a a apx ec eo ao. cooae p oca opa p cocae oyeo aeo copaae pe pyx oepa yeae pe a opecy paoy.

AP exuecoo paoua . Texece pao, a pao, o pyy paoy, peyy opeeex poeccoax ao. x oco y c:

o opa a B;

oopee oyeo (ea, papoae, pacca ..);

eee apxo;

opo eeeoo paoeo aa pyooee (cepeap, oo pyooee);

opaoa xoe cxoe oyea;

.

Bce y c coo cee eoc oo aapoa, coy AP execoo paoa a ae . B cyae oeceaec e oo cee ooooc yoeoc pya, o paoa caoc oee paoopao epeco, pacpe yoa aao .

B oe cyae AP execoo paoa ec aoee o, .e., eee ac o ce ypee, opaa. accooe pooco pacpocpaee ax AP oe ca o ocox peepo oe pooeoc ypaeecoo pya.

Ocooe peoae popa exec cpeca AP execoo paoa coco oecee acao pyeceoc poooc: yooe pacooee execx cpec, -cooe aeco yao opa, poco ao c ocaa p epax ecx ooae, ae execx cpec ea papoa oyeo, oooc ee apxo p.


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