Название: ЗАПАДНОЕВРОПЕЙСКОЕ ИСКУССТВО от ДЖОТТО до РЕМБРАНДТА

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Unit v leonardo da vinci (1452-1519)

The coming of the sixteenth century saw the rise of great artists in Italy - Raphael, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. Their names have never lost their enormous fame.

High Renaissance style was founded by one of the most gifted individuals ever born. Leonardo da Vinci, who has always been famous because of the fantastic range of his genius, fulfilled the Renaissance ideal of the Universal Man. He was not only a great painter and sculptor, but also an outstanding architect, an inventor, an engineer, a musician, and the leading physicist, botanist, anatomist, geologist and geographer of his time.

Leonardo's fame as an artist is based on eighteen paintings that came down to us, some of them incomplete, some damaged as a result of his experimental techniques. Leonardo's art surpassed the achievements of his time. In an era when the continuing power of the Church competed in men's mind with the revived authority of Classical antiquity, for Leonardothere was no authority higher than that of an eye, which he characterized as "the window of the soul". When Leonardo began his campaign to modernize painting the artist was still a craftsman and a guild member; before the High Renaissance was over, a great master could live like a prince.

Leonardo da Vinci was born in Tuscany. By 1469 he was Verrocchio's apprentice. In Verrocchio's workshop Leonardo obtained the best education of his time.

The Adoration of the Magi is Leonardo's first masterpiece. It was commissioned in 1481 for a church outside Florence. It was, never carried any further than the monochrome underpaint Leonardo used the pyramidal composition. The groups are based on the actions of the component figures and dissolve as soon as they move. Leonardo did not know it, but this discovery was made in Greece in the 5-th century B.C. In this work Leonardo started with the moment of feeling, form came next.

The Madonna of the Rocks, of 1483, is one of the earliest and the most famous Leonardo's pictures. It was intended for the Oratory of the Immaculate Conception in Milan. The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception means that the Virgin was freed from the taint of the Original Sin. Leonardo has interpreted this doctrine dramatically. He represented Mary in the midst of a dark world of rock forms. In this strange rocky grotto, where the sun never seems to strike and the plants grow thick but colourless, the Christ Child manifests his Divinity as he blesses the infant St. John, himself taken under the Virgin's protection. And, like a prophecy of the Baptism of Christ by St. John in the Jordan, a river winds away among the pale peaks. This painting makes Leonardo a typical artist of the High Renaissance.

The Madonna and Saint Anna was designed in Florence in 1501 and completed many years later in Milan. It represents a revolutionary rethinking of the conventional theme of the Holy Family. Leonardo intertwined the figures to form a pyramidal composition. Leonardo makes the Virgin sit on her mother's lap and merges their bodies in such a way that their heads are like twin heads rising from a single trunk. S. Anna's head mirrors her daughter's image. The Virgin, as in traditional representations of this subject, is shown reaching for the Christ Child, who in his turn attempts to ride upon a lamb, the symbol of his sacrificial death. The background is one of the most impressive mountain pictures ever painted. Valleys, rocks and peaks diminish progressively into the bluish haze of the distance until they can no longer be distinguished.

Leonardo's power as an artist and thinker is evident in the Last Supper and the Mona Lisa, his two most famous works. Leonardo's Last Supper was painted on the end wall of the refectory of the Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan in 1495. In the fresco Christ discloses to his followers that soon one of their number will betray him and their cause. The composition is the product of the moment of action and meaning. The Apostles are presented in four groups of three each. Each of these numbers has many meanings: the multiplication of the Gospels by the Trinity is only one, and twelve itself is not merely the number of the Apostles but of the months of the year and the hours of the day and of the night. The numerical division helps to throw the fundamental character of each of the Apostles into full relief, from the innocence of John on Christ's right to the horror of James on his left and to the protestation of Philip, who placed his hand on his breast. Only Judas knows, and the light does not shine upon his face. The Last Supper is a humanistic interpretation of the narrative. Leonardo has painted a higher reality, thus making a complete break with the Early Renaissance and establishing the ideal world in which Michelangelo and Raphael later operated. Leonardo painted his masterpiece in an oil-and-tempera emulsion on the dry plaster, and it began rapidly to peel off. As a result the surface is severely damaged.

Although Leonardo's paintings are badly preserved, they are all fascinating. Leonardo created an enigma to which he gives no answer.

From 1503 until 1506 Leonardo was painting a portrait of the wife of the prominent Florentine citizen. The painting is known today as the Mona Lisa. The figure sits in a relaxed position, with hands quietly crossed, before one of Leonardo's richest and most mysterious landscape backgrounds, traversed by roads that lose themselves, bridges to nowhere, crags vanishing in the mists. This attitude of total calm became characteristic for High Renaissance portraits. The face has suffered in the course of time but nothing has spoiled the sad half smile that plays about the lips.

For a year or two Leonardo worked for the notorious Cesare Borgia, designing battle engines, siege devices and making maps. The Florentines commissioned Leonardo to paint the Battle of Anghiari on a wall of a newly constructed Hall of Five Hundred in the Palazzo Vecchio. This painting depicted an event from 15-th century history. It was part of a general programme to celebrate the newly revived republic.

Leonardo's later life was a succession of trips between Florence, Milan and Rome. He painted little in his later years. At his death Leonardo's artistic influence was immense, but much of his scientific work had to await later rediscovery.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Leonardo da Vinci [@@¶]; Raphael [@]; Immaculate Conception [@]; magi []; Verrocchio []; Mona Lisa [@@]; Milan []; Cesare Borgia [:@]; Rome [@]

NOTES

Baptism of Christ - "Крещение Христа"

Adoration of the Magi - "Поклонение волхвов"

Madonna of the Rocks - "Мадонна в гроте"

Madonna and Saint Anna - "Святая Анна с Марией и младенцем Христом "

Last Supper - "Тайная вечеря"

Mona Lisa - "Мона Лиза" (" Джоконда")

Battle ofAnghiari - "Битва при Ангиар"

TASKS

I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. When Leonardo began his career artists lived like princes.

2. In the Last Supper Leonardo has painted a higher reality, thus making a complete break with the Early Renaissance.

3. The Battle of Anghiari is the earliest and most famous Leonardo's picture.

4. In the Madonna and Saint Anna the figures are pictured in a strange rocky shadowy grotto.

5. The Madonna of the Rocks was designed in Florence in 1501 and completed many years later in Milan.

6. The Adoration of the Magi was Leonardo's last work.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. How did Leonardo fulfil the Renaissance ideal of the Universal Man?

3. What does Leonardo's reputation as an artist rest on? What happened to his other works of art? Why?

4. What is Leonardo's first masterpiece?  What colour dominates in this work of art?

5. In what work of art has Leonardo interpreted the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception? How has he interpreted it?

6. What does the Madonna and Saint Anna represent?

7. What compositional form dominates in Leonardo's works?

8. What is pictured in The Last Supper? Where do the figures operate? How are the Apostles arranged? What does each of these numbers mean?

9. What is the Mona Lisa famous for? What is depicted in the background?

10. What else did Leonardo create in Florence?

11. What did Leonardo do in his later life?

III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

an apprentice; to surpass the achievements of the time; a craftsman; workshop; the Oratory of the Immaculate Conception; a monochrome underpaint; a pyramidal composition; the taint of the Original Sin; traditional representations of the ordinary theme; sacrificial death; to manifest the Divinity; to take smb under the protection; to betray the cause; the prophecy of the Baptism of Christ; to create an enigma; notorious; a characteristic device; on the end wall of the refectory; to make a complete break with; the figure sits in a relaxed position; to suffer in the course of time; a smile plays about the lips; on the dry plaster.

ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

ремесленники; члены гильдии; символ жертвенной смерти; традиционное изображение обычной темы; на сухой штукатурке; возродить авторитет классической античности; взять кого-либо под свое покровительство; пирамидальная композиция; церковь Непорочного Зачатия; предать дело; одноцветный набросок; позор Первородного Греха; проявить божественность; пророчество крещения Христа; опередить достижения своего времени.

iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

iv. Translate the following groups of words into Russian:

ideal - idealism - idealistic; invent - inventor - invention - inventive; craftsman - craftsmanship; apprentice - apprenticeship; symbol - symbolic - symbolism; pyramid - pyramidal; commission -commissioner; city - citizen - citizenship; relax - relaxation - relaxed; betray - betrayal - betrayer; manifest - manifestation; mature -maturate - maturation - maturely - maturity; concentrate - concentrated -concentration; fame - famous; gift - gifted.

v. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) gifted; traditional; outstanding; characteristic; complete; progress; enigma; famous; notorious; to commission; prophet; baptism; protection;

b) riddle; consecration; celebrated; infamous; talented; conventional; prominent; guardianship; typical; entire; advance; to order; foreseer.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Leonardo's works of art. Match them up to the titles given below.

1. The Apostles are presented in four groups of three each.

2. Christ Child manifests his Divinity as he blesses the infant St. John.   

3. This painting depicts an event from 15-th century history.             

4. The face has suffered in the course of time but nothing has spoiled the sad half smile that plays about the lips.

5. It was never carried any further than the monochrome underpaint.       

6. The Virgin sits on her mother's lap, as in traditional representations of this theme.

a. Mona Lisa

b. Adoration of the Magi

c. Madonna of the Rocks

d. Last Supper

e. Madonna and Saint Anna

f. Battle ofAnghiari

V. Insert the missing prepositions. Retell the text.

... Leonardo architecture was based ... the twin principles ... geometric relations and natural growth. And nothing was so important as the central-plan structure. This new organic architecture was realised ... Bramante's plan for Saint Peter's. But the idea ... it originated ... Leonardo's mind. Leonardo abandoned both the planar architecture ... Brunelleschi and the block architecture ...Alberti. He began ... plans and perspective drawings ... the same structure. Leonardo started ... an octagon surrounded ... eight circles, and a Greek cross whose arms, terminating ... four semicircular apses, embrace four additional octagons ... each ... which a tower must be erected.

VI. Insert the article wherever necessary. Retell the text.

Nothing in Leonardo's scientific drawings is quite as exciting as his Olympian views of... nature, which illustrate his standpoint in ... Renaissance debate about ... relative importance of ... various arts. Leonardo maintained that ... painting deserved ... position as one of... liberal arts, more than ... music or ... poetry. ... Music, he noted is dead as soon as ... last sound has expired , but ... work of ... painting is always there to be seen. He pointed out, no one ever travelled to read ... poem, but ... people journey ... hundreds of miles to see ... painting. Leonardo did not admit... sculpture to ... liberal arts; ... painter could work in quiet, sitting down, richly dressed and listen to ... music while he worked, while ... sculptor was covered with ... sweat and ... dust and his ears deafened by ... noise of... hammer and ... chisel on ... stone.

VII. Translate the text into English.

Леонардо да Винчи - первый художник Высокого Ренессанса, недолгого золотого века итальянского искусства. Произведения этого периода характеризуются синтезом прекрасных сторон жизни. Фигура ангела, написанная Леонардо, в картине его учителя Андреа Вероккио "Крещение" демонстрирует разницу в восприятии мира художниками разных эпох.

С 1482 по 1499 гг. Леонардо жил в Милане. Это был один из лучших периодов творчества художника. Здесь он написал "Мадонну в гроте" - первую монументальную алтарную композицию Высокого Ренессанса. Самая большая работа Леонардо - роспись стены трапезной монастыря Санта Мария делла Грацие на сюжет "Тайной Вечери". Христос в последний раз встречается за ужином со своими учениками, чтобы объявить о предательстве одного из них. Леонардо показал реакцию двенадцати апостолов на слова учителя. Судьба фрески трагична. Эксперименты Леонардо привели к ее быстрому осыпанию.

В 1503 г. во Флоренции Леонардо выполнил картину на тему битвы миланцев и флорентийцев при Ангиари, заказанную для стены нового зала палаццо Синьории и создал портрет Моны Лизы, супруги Франческо дель Джокондо. Мона Лиза изображена на фоне пейзажа с мостами и дорогами в никуда, скалами, исчезающими в облаках. В портрете Моны Лизы достигнута наивысшая степень гармонии и красоты образа эпохи Высокого Ренессанса.

VIII. Summarize the text.

IX. Topics for discussion.

1. Leonardo's religious paintings.

2. Leonardo's portraits.

3. Leonardo's artistic influence.


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